Immunization is the introduction of antigen into the body in order to produce and strengthen the body defence system and prevent infection.
The prevention of disease by immunization is the best known practical low cost community-based means of protecting children and adults against the major killer disease.
Immunization is the resistance usually comes with the possession of antibody that has inhibitory effect and the specific microorganism or its toxin that causes a particular infectious disease.
The level of immunity in a community is called herd immunity.
See also Urinary tract infections
Factors affecting individual resistance to diseases
There are some factors that determine how individuals develop resistance to diseases. These factors include;
- Disease condition
- Health status
Also read Physiology of menstruation
Ways by In which we can gain immunity
1. By having the disease
This means when one already have the disease previously the body create a resistance to that disease.
For example, chicken pox when one have chickenpox the body creates a resistance and immunity for chickenpox that’s why it happens most time once in life.
2. Active immunization
It helps to introduce antigen into the body to strengthen the body defence mechanism and prevent infection or diseases it serves as a protective mechanism to prevent invasion of microorganisms into the body.
3. Passive immunization
This is a defence mechanism which is inborn one carries the defence mechanism from birth to prevent diseases or infections.
4. Receiving maternal antibody
This is the antibody received by an unborn embryo from the mother during fertilization or gestation.
Types of immunity
There are two types of immunity, they are;
- Passive immunity
- Active immunity
1. Passive immunity.
It is temporal. Similarly, it has two types namely “natural immunity and artificial immunity”.
- Natural immunity is acquired naturally by maternal transfer and it is shortly lived. it is the inoculation of specific protecting antibody example anti tetanus.
- Artificial immunity it last months or years and it is also divided into natural and artificial natural is the one gotten through being affected by the disease its last for years or permanent or permanent.
Disease preventable by immunization.
it is a clipping and potentially deadly infectious disease that is caused by polio virus this virus is spread from person to person and can invade an infected person’s brain and spinal cord causing paralysis.
This causes painful muscle stiffness and lockjaw.
It is a respiratory illness which is as a result of influenza virus that affect the nose throat and lung.
4. Hepatitis B
This is spread through blood or other body fluid and is specially dangerous for babies since hepatitis b virus can spread from an infected mother to the child through birth.
it is spread by coughing and sneezing it is specially dangerous for pregnant woman and her developing baby.
6. Haemophilus influenzae type B
it can also cause some serious damage to the child’s immune system such as Brain damage hearing loss and death.
this is very contagious and can be serious especially for young children.
8. Whooping cough or pertussis
it is also highly contagious disease and can be deadly for babies it can cause uncontrollable violence coffee in which often makes it hard to breathe leading to difficulty in breathing to babies.
9. Pneumococcal disease
This disease derives its origin from bacteria. Streptococcus pneumonia (the bacteria) causes ear infection sinus infection pneumonia and even meningitis.
It is contagious and can cause severe watery diarrhoea vomiting fever and abdominal pain mostly in infants and young children.
It is the causes puffy cheek and swelling jaw. Due to the swelling of the salivary gland other symptoms fever headache muscle aches and weakness it has no treatment.
12. Chicken pox
This is a disease that causes itching rashes or blisters and also fever.
It causes a thick covering in the back of the nose or throat leading to difficulty in breathing and swallowing
14. Human papillomavirus
15. Meningococcal virus
16. Yellow fever
Check out Breast examination
Cold chain system( Immunization).
This is a system specially for storing and distributing busing in important States from the manufacturer to the child or woman for immunization sake.
It is a supply system which particularly is crucial because vaccines are easily destroyed by heat temperature that is hot or cold
It’s a logistics system involving equipment and person to preserve and transport vaccines to stores.
Component of cold chain system.
- Equipment which include the vaccines, ice pack ,refrigerator ,thermometer, injection, needles and syringe.
Maintenance of cold chain system
- Maintain the equipment.
- Handle vaccines properly.